Battery thermal management system
is a technology that improves battery performance, prolongs battery life and ensures battery safety by controlling battery temperature. The battery generates heat during operation. If the temperature of the battery is too high or too low, it will affect the performance of the battery and even cause damage to the battery. Therefore, battery thermal management is mainly used to maintain the operating temperature of the battery within a stable range.
A battery thermal management system usually includes components such as temperature sensors
, control systems
, heat dissipation systems
, and cooling systems
. The temperature sensor can sense the temperature of the battery, and the control system can control the working state of the heat dissipation and cooling system according to the data provided by the temperature sensor, so as to realize the regulation and control of the battery heat.
The truck battery thermal management unit
automatically operates in various modes such as cooling and heating according to the operating instructions of the BMS
and does not require human intervention during normal operation.
Unit operation mode:
shutdown, self-circulation, cooling three working modes, each mode unit operation status:
the unit is in standby state.
only the water pump runs.
BMS sends the cooling request and the target water temperature, and the unit automatically calculates the operating speed of the compressor through the PID algorithm according to the difference between the outlet water temperature and the target water temperature and adjusts it in real time.
How the battery thermal management system works
1. Temperature measurement:
The battery thermal management system first measures the temperature of the battery through sensors. Sensors can be mounted directly on the surface of the battery, or outside the battery and connected to the control system through wires. Regardless of the method used, the temperature measurement of the battery is transmitted to the control system in real time.
2. Temperature analysis:
At this time, the control system will analyze the temperature data to determine the actual working condition of the current battery. For example, if the temperature of the battery is too high, the control system will take some measures to reduce the temperature. If the temperature is too low, the control system will take some measures to increase the temperature of the battery.
3. Temperature control:
On the basis of temperature analysis, the control system will adopt some loop control strategies for temperature control. These control strategies are mainly of three types: heating, cooling and maintenance. Heating and heating is achieved by controlling heat transfer across the surface of the battery. For example. Heating control can be achieved by heaters on the surface of the battery. Cooling control can be achieved through heat sinks on the surface of the battery. Maintenance control, on the other hand, instructs the system to regulate the temperature of the battery so that it stabilizes within an acceptable range without heating or cooling.
4. Temperature monitoring:
In order to ensure the accuracy of temperature control, the battery thermal management system is usually equipped with a real-time temperature monitoring function. This function can monitor the temperature change of the battery to ensure that the temperature control strategy of the control system is executed in a balanced, efficient and safe manner.
What types of battery thermal management systems are there?
Liquid cooling system:
The battery is cooled by cooling liquid circulation, which has the characteristics of high efficiency and stability.
Air cooling system:
cooling by the air around the battery, is simple and easy to maintain, but not as efficient as a liquid cooling system.
Phase change material cooling system:
use the characteristics of phase change material to absorb heat and evaporate for cooling, which has the characteristics of high efficiency, no noise and energy saving.
Thermal conduction material heat dissipation system:
use thermal conduction material to export the heat generated by the battery, and dissipate heat through the radiator, which is simple and practical.
Heat pipe cooling system:
use the heat pipe to conduct heat and dissipate heat through the radiator for cooling, which has the characteristics of high efficiency and stability.
Intelligent thermal management system:
Combined with sensor, controller and other technologies, through real-time monitoring and control of the internal temperature of the battery to achieve the best cooling effect.
Why do battery packs need thermal management?
Improve battery life:
When the battery is operated at too high or too low a temperature, its life will be greatly shortened. Therefore, through thermal management, the temperature of the battery can be controlled and the battery life can be improved.
Improve battery performance:
The electrochemical reaction rate of a battery is affected by temperature. Proper temperature can improve the output power and energy density of the battery.
Prevent safety risks caused by excessive temperature:
High temperature will trigger chemical reactions inside the battery, further exacerbating the temperature rise, and may even cause an explosion or fire. Thermal management can control the temperature of the battery to avoid safety risks.
Therefore, for battery packs, thermal management is very necessary, and in applications such as electric vehicles and drones, the importance of thermal management is even more prominent.
What kind of vehicles needs a battery thermal management system?
, light trucks
, construction vehicles
, agricultural vehicles
, and transport vehicles
Heavy-duty trucks and engineering vehicles have a large load capacity and are mostly used in engineering construction and overweight cargo transportation. Therefore, the battery load of heavy trucks and engineering vehicles will be very large, and the battery has overheated. BTMS can help the vehicle battery to cool down and ensure that the battery operates at an optimal temperature, thereby ensuring the safety of the vehicle.
Light trucks, agricultural vehicles, and transport vehicles are characterized by frequent use and long working hours. The battery is prone to overheating problems during long-term work and operation, and safety accidents are prone to occur during long-term use. In order to ensure the safety of personnel, vehicles, and goods, it is necessary to monitor and manage batteries in real-time. The main function of battery thermal management is to monitor the status of the vehicle battery, so as to make the best choice to optimize the battery temperature, thereby prolonging the battery life and battery safety.
Guchen has a stand-alone battery thermal management system and an integrated battery thermal management system.
The independent thermal management system
can be applied to buses and heavy trucks with large spaces due to its large system size and inseparability. In order to meet the needs of light truck vehicles, we have developed an integrated thermal management system suitable for light trucks with small spaces. Our thermal management systems have been developed to suit most bus and truck applications.
What are the components of a battery management system?
▶ Compressor module, including compressor, gas-liquid separator, expansion valve, battery panel replacement, and high and low-pressure controller;
▶ Cooling module, including the condenser, motor radiator, and cooling fan;
▶ HVAC air conditioning box, including blower, evaporative core, and warm core;
▶ Piping parts, including media piping and plumbing piping;
▶ Control panel.
Battery thermal management system cooling battery system
A battery thermal management system typically includes a heat sink that dissipates heat from the battery system.
The battery thermal management system uses coolant to flow through the battery pack to help dissipate heat.
Battery thermal management systems typically include fans that blow air across the battery system to reduce temperatures.
Temperature sensors are often included in battery thermal management systems, which can detect the temperature in the battery system and adjust the operation of heat sinks, fans, etc. mechanisms as needed to maintain an appropriate temperature range.
For the battery system, when its temperature is too high, the battery thermal management system will limit the charging speed or stop charging to avoid causing overheating problems.
Battery thermal management system preheats the battery system
Using a heater:
The battery thermal management system can use a dedicated heater to transfer heat into the battery module, thereby increasing the temperature of the battery module.
The battery thermal management system can adjust the flow rate of coolant, and transfer heat from the coolant to the battery module through a heat exchanger to achieve battery preheating.
Adopt chassis heating system:
The battery thermal management system can use the heat of the vehicle chassis to transfer the heat to the battery module through the heat exchanger, thereby realizing battery preheating.
The battery thermal management system can preheat the battery system through various means to improve the working efficiency and life of the battery.
The installation of the truck battery thermal management system needs to be carried out according to the specific conditions of the vehicle and the structure of the system, and safety issues need to be paid attention to during the installation process.
Benefits of split-arrangement truck battery thermal management systems
1. Improve the service life of the battery: the split thermal management system can effectively control the temperature of the battery to avoid overheating or overcooling of the battery, thereby prolonging the service life of the battery.
2. Improve vehicle performance: The temperature of the battery has a great influence on the performance and efficiency of the vehicle. The split-type thermal management system can ensure that the battery is in the optimal temperature range to improve the performance and efficiency of the vehicle.
3. Improved safety: Batteries that are too hot or cold increase the risk of battery failure and vehicle accidents. The split thermal management system can keep the battery temperature within a safe range to improve vehicle safety.
4. Save energy: Past battery thermal management systems usually required a lot of energy to maintain battery temperature. The split thermal management system can save energy and reduce vehicle energy consumption.
5. Improve driver experience and comfort: battery temperature can affect the temperature in the car and the air conditioning system. The split thermal management system can provide better driver experience and comfort.
Advantages of Guchen Truck Battery Thermal Management System
★ The electronic expansion valve is used to adjust the refrigerant flow rate of the system. The two systems can realize three modes of independent operation and joint operation. The side that does not need refrigeration can close the corresponding electronic expansion valve/solenoid valve;
★ A temperature and pressure sensor is added behind the evaporator, coupled with the cooling logic on the air conditioner side and the water temperature control scheme on the battery side, and synchronously adjusts the openings of electronic expansion valve 1 and electronic expansion valve 2, effectively Solving the problem of uneven cooling capacity distribution and at the same time Avoid temperature fluctuations in the car and on the battery side, which has obvious advantages in car comfort and battery temperature control;
★ Through the PID control technology, the speed of the compressor and the condensing fan can be precisely adjusted to realize the energy saving of the product;
★ Compared with the independent battery thermal management system, the integrated system can effectively reduce the weight and cost of the product while meeting the product requirements;
★ Multiple protections such as temperature, pressure, current, and voltage are added to the system, which can identify system operation risks in advance and effectively improve product operation reliability and safety;
★ The unit adopts CAN communication network, and the operating data of the unit can be uploaded to the instrument in real time, and remote fault diagnosis and treatment can be realized through intelligent network connection, which is convenient for detecting the operating status of the unit it and troubleshooting after-sales.
In short, the battery thermal management system ensures that the battery can maintain a stable temperature range during operation through steps such as temperature measurement, temperature analysis, temperature control, and temperature monitoring, thereby improving the working efficiency and life of the battery.